The rate of crystallization in general limited by the rate of nucleation. Nucleation can be spontaneous – homogeneous nucleation, and induced – heterogeneous nucleation. When heterogeneous nucleation ions are collected on foreign (heterogeneous) with respect to the crystallizing substance inclusions, such as the surface of process equipment or piping The rate of nucleation on these surfaces in the 1,000-10,000-fold higher than in the bulk liquid. Strength of crystal nuclei and the metal surface due to the presence of electrostatic forces. Over time, a layer of sediment thickened and hardened, providing the aforementioned negative effects.
Thus, the task of preventing (or significantly reduce the quantity) of crystal nuclei coupling with the metal surface is to prepare the metal surface, providing a significant reduction or absence of negative charges due to ionization of surface functional groups. The boundary between solid Body / fluid will ensure that the repulsive electrostatic interaction between the metal surface and the ions Ca2 + and CO32 + in the case of ensuring its hydrophobic state. Crystal around the particle emerging there is a layer of water molecules together with minor amounts of counterions. This was a charged layer of the solution is an excess of counterions. This charge distribution is called the electrical double layer leads to a repulsion between particles. Such double electric layers usually occur at the interface between solid hydrophobic body (metal surface) and an aqueous solution. All known methods (40 methods) to reduce and prevent deposit formation on heating surfaces, mainly focused on the impact of different methods for fluids.
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