Alexander Graham Bell

Today everyone can afford a phone connection at home or the office, but few know the history of invention of this device is so familiar. Invention, a device that would transmit and receive audio using to the properties of electricity, preceded by the appearance of the electric telegraph. February 14, 1876 an American of Scottish descent, Alexander Graham Bell filed in the U.S. Patent Office for an invention of an apparatus which he called telephone. Only two hours later a similar request made another American named Grey. This happens with the inventors and to this day, albeit very infrequently. Good luck Bella was still in the fact that to do an outstanding invention helped him to an accident. Yet a much greater extent by their appearance phone obliged huge efforts, persistence and knowledge of this man. Handset Bell served in the queue for transmission and reception human speech and the phone did not ring Bell.

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his machine at the Philadelphia World’s Fair. Within the walls of the pavilion was first sounded the word phone – so introduced himself as the inventor of a ‘speaking telegraph’. To the amazement of the jury of the horn this thing came monologue Prince of Denmark ‘To Be or Not To Be? ‘, Performed at the same time, but in another room, by the inventor, Mr. Bell. History has responded to this question unquestioning ‘to be’. Bell’s invention became a sensation in Philadelphia exhibition. This is despite the fact that the first telephone worked with monstrous distortions of sound, to talk with it could not continue to 250 meters, because he acted even without the battery power alone, electromagnetic induction, its receiver and transmitter devices were equally primitive. The first commercial phone conversation between New York and London took place on Jan. 7, 1927 on the transatlantic telephone cable. Few people know that in the ussr until 1968 in telephone numbers were not just numbers but also letters. And the first phones dialer did not exist. In his book “The list of subscribers of the Moscow telephone network” for the 1916 first paragraph of instructions for use telephones reads: “The central station is called a simple removal of mikrotelefona lever. The duty station must respond by telling his room. Then the caller clearly and distinctly said number, which requires a connection. ” On the first disk devices were only numbers. In the 20 years of the last century, close to the figures portrayed characters. In the Soviet Union on the phone beside the figures, too, there were 10 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, I, K and L. The letter W is not used, because it looks like a triple.

Solid Foam Can Be Made Liquid

Very often the solution of ecological problems in the processing industry depends on automation and mechanization of the transportation process. The problem is that waste is often non-transportable, they viscous, capable of cohesive, agglomerated and often have a high density. Even manually extract the mass of the machine very hard. When cleaning the effluents containing suspended and surface-active substances in the ore dressing and waste, this problem is very urgent. Since we are producing equipment for the environmental problems arose mechanization and automation of sludge. Density of slurry can be reduced simply to foaming. But the foam can There are two types: solid and liquid. The first is not flowing, sticks to everything.

The second can be transported through pipelines. It was the second option, and we needed. How to make the foam has a liquid? Here and started working science, or more precisely the topology and geometry. It was necessary to create conditions where individual bubbles in the foam would not form aggregates and were able to flow, that is, to move freely. Came a brilliant idea – to equip the foam ‘Bearings’ to slip the bubbles relative to each other. And the material was found – the bubbles smaller. As it turned out binodal distribution of foam bubble size gives the desired effect. Introduction additional quantity of gas to form a fluid foam, bubbles with a given size a certain amount, with subsequent removal of gravity of the foam product, significantly simplifies the process of cleaning liquid phase from suspensions. For the formation of foam from a gas-supersaturated fluid, we used cavitation, ultrasound and vacuum. Tests have shown that this physical effect is working. Wastes are separated from ochisschennoy fluid density (foam less dense), flowing through the pipes, turn on automatic fluid foam itself strictly in terms of the mirror foam, manual labor is eliminated. Make the next step to a comfortable, highly productive labor in the field of ecology. Method eliminates the mechanical removal of the foam, manual labor, harmful effects on the environment and improves the efficiency of the process. Now the treatment facilities and processing plants can be introduced deserted technology.